Basic concepts of the Linux operating system- One

Linux operating system’s basic idea- One:

Before the emergence of Microsoft’s Windows Market, Macintosh computers were quite popular. For a new computer user, by clicking the mouse in a small picture, the experience of working was certainly more appealing than commanding the commands in DOS command mode. However, the batch file could not be created on a patch, text or files could not be redirected to a port, piping the input in command or operating a command based on the command of a command, etc. For example, it could be said in a graphical environment, No Although Mac’s graphical environment can work much easier, it isolates the user from the kernel of the hardware and operating system, it reduces the effectiveness of automating work and giving different directions. Automation or automation is not a key to using a computer? But this graphic interface of Mac was completely different. It requires user guidance for each job. Compared to the server of Windows and Linux, if it is shown in the form of the equation, it would be a lot like this:


Generality = Restrictions

Complexity = capability


This applies to almost all cases. A simple audio system will not be able to provide quality output like a 15-band equalizer, so as not to manage it simply. Learning Windows Server OS may seem a lot easier, but you have to do all the work manually by providing input and do it by reducing the ability to create automated systems. Automation that enables the computer to work on its own, is able to bring true productivity and reduce costs by increasing the comparative advantage of an organization.


Linux supports a lot of hardware platforms and Debian Linux is one of those which offers different disk sets for different platform support. That’s why Debian’s CD / DVD uses different symbols for different platforms, such as ‘i386’ for Intel processors, ‘PPC’ for old Mac computers, ‘Sparc’ for Sun system and also for IBM mainframe computers. Has ‘s390’ Source disks, including the source code of the entire operating system and its programs and programmers, are also available separately. If you know your C programming (or if you want to learn to programme in C) then you can see it for yourself and see the source code of the Debian operating system and all programs available with it. If you install Debian Standard Intel / AMD / Cyrix PC then the ‘i386’ disk set will be required.


Linux is a famous operating system. But it is released by various companies that are slightly different from the concept of Windows. These companies release the market with their own standard, such as graphical installation tools, but they all use any version of the Linux kernel that is the main part of the operating system. Linux is called by different companies (or short distro) as they are called distributions. Redhat is also the most popular distro and Susie, Mandrake / Mandriva’s words are also notable. Companies from the Distribution Distribution earn money through sales and support. Debian is slightly different from these. It is a leading non-commercial distribution that is based on the voluntary efforts of developers spread across the world, to encourage the idea of free and open software – on which the first Linux was built.


While many people understand Linux as a whole operating system, but technically, Linux is the core kernel that works on other free GNU programs like graphical interfaces, command line programs, etc. That’s why Debian is officially called “Debian GNU / Linux”.


If a company customizes a normal GNU program, then it is no longer free to use any version of its own, rather it is a copyrighted title. This is where the distribution-based problem arises, in order to get the upgrade/support to depend on others.

Red Hat Company is famous for using non-standard tools/commands based on their own proprietary rights rather than the standard GNU UNIX Linux commands. As a result, Red Hat can not work on Linux systems, with the help of free books and references available on the web and other places. Even the books are written on previous versions of Redhat, and in some cases, are not used in the current version because their commands are often revised in every new version. It is really difficult to say whether Red Hat is supposed to be Linux in the next few years if it continues.


The distribution files in the distribution may be slightly different and have different names. For example, Network Interface Configuration (NIC) –


Debian – / etc / network / interfaces

Red Hat – / etc / sysconfig / network-scripts / ifcfg-eth0

(A separate file for each interface)

Suse – For versions> = 8.0

/ etc / sysconfig / network / ifcfg-eth0

(A separate file for each interface)

For versions <8.0



Ian Murdoch created the Debian distribution while in 1993 at the University of Pardee University as a Computer Science student. He wanted a Linux distribution that would be operated in a completely free and open way – the purpose of which Linux and GNU software was launched in front of the right. The name was taken in the name of his first name and his current wife, Debra. In addition to creating software, he has a guideline for Debian Manifesto and the leader of the free and open Linux distributions.


Because Debian GNU is a successful Linux successor and the GNU standard strictly adheres to it, many are using it as their favorite distribution. In the latest version of Debian (5.0, CodeName – Lenny), approximately 25,000 software packages are included, all of which are free (for this reason it comes to 31 CDs / 5 DVDs). It is possible to install desktop programs, server programs, utilities, developer tools and more with just a single command.


Due to non-commercial distribution, Debian has not been able to find a new version in a hurry, because its version number from other distributions is slightly backward. Some may criticize Debian because of this, but I can say with certainty that they are not necessarily a network administrator (just as Debian has done a little bit of a desktop). Network administrators often prefer to upgrade or change the server. That’s why Microsoft was forced to change the policy of supporting Windows NT because many servers are still operating on NT-based systems. Network administrators prefer stability more than anything else, where a server can run away from a few issues year after year. If you do not like unstable servers, you must choose Debian. That’s why it is called rock-solid operating system because the frequent version does not impose extra burdens on net admins.


Microsoft only thinks Linux as its biggest threat because of a very common reason. And that is since there is no owner of Linux, Microsoft can not afford to destroy it (the strategy that Microsoft often uses for its competitors). Instead of competing with honesty, they adopted the policy to hit it. Yet the ruthless truth is that Microsoft has started to realize – providing stable, scalable and secure server systems like Linux is the only way to compete with Linux.