Basic concepts of the Linux operating system- Two

Basic concepts of the Linux operating system- Two:

Here I’m just trying to discuss the basic concepts of the Linux operating system so that in the future it can give some guidance to new Linux users as a basis. Because of my experience – new people who start learning Linux often say – use a Linux (distro), start from where, learn what, learn everything, command line etc. Many of them have given some list of commands and said that they are practicing. But if there is a whole system on the system, it can be easily fixed by the target such as I will use a distribution, learn what I will learn, and learn more about the answers to such questions. Even then, there may be mistakes, there may be limitations – I already accept it.


Use Linux:

It is possible to create any number of server systems, as well as create a desktop system with Linux. If you want to use Linux only as a desktop, you can use any desktop-oriented Debian-based distro such as Corel Linux, Ubuntu, Dream Linux, Kubuntu etc. And you can create a very strong server with Debian. Of course, I’m not saying that Debian is only made for the server. You can use Debian as a desktop OS without any customization. As a result, you will be somewhat ahead when you want to use it as a server OS in the future.


With Linux, you can do the following:


* Works as a desktop operating system, such as writing, accounting, browsing, listening to music, etc.


* Create an external internet or internal web server


* Create a mail server for internal and internet email


* Installing other internet-based programs like FTP, News, IRC (chat) etc.


* Set up webcam server to monitor your home or office activity from a remote location


* Setting up a proxy/nat server for sharing a single broadband Internet connection to all systems in the home or office.


* Setting up a packet filtering firewall for incoming and outgoing traffic control in the network


* Create an internal LAN server like Novell or NT / 2000 for file and print sharing. There is a package called Samba, which allows your Linux server to be used as an NT server for Windows clients on the network.


* Installing an internal LAN host and Internet domain name-based DNS server


* Installing MySQL, Oracle or Postgres based database server


* Setting up fax server and allowing all users located on the network to send faxes to the machine so that it is not printed before fax can be sent.


* Setting up a free LAN and one router instead of $ 5000 Cisco Router


* Install the Syslog server to monitor network and system activity centrally.


* Setting up of IDS (Intrusion Detection Systems) to prevent incoming attacks and attacks from the Internet.


DOS-like shell scripting/command

In DOS, where there is only one e-character based interface, there are several Linux (UNIX) These are called shell instead of the interpreter, even though they do the job of the interpreter. UNIX has a total of 3 shells such as C, Korn, and Bourne.


There are more shells in addition to its own version of the above three shells in Linux. “Bash”, or Bourne-again Shell, is the default shell of most Linux because it has most of the features of Bourne and Korn shell.


Linux / UNIX shells have their own prompts. When you open a shell, you will see any one of% or $ that indicates the type of shell. When logging in as root, there will be a prompt that will have # signs. “root” is Linux / UNIX’s most powerful user, which is a bit like Windows’s Administrator account or Novell’s Supervisor.


Just like how dir and copy are executed on a dose, ls and cp commands can be given at Linux shell prompt.


In the same way as the DOS-based graphical user interface (GUI) on Windows 3.1 operating system, there are several graphical interfaces available in Linux. The most commonly used GUI is Nom / Gnome. KDE is another popular graphical interface. You can install anyone to use according to your own preferences. When looking for a program for Linux on the Internet, you will see that the name of the program is started with either G or K characters like Gpad – which means the program is ready for the GNOME interface.


You will see some programs that have started with X, which mainly refers to X11, X Windows or X programs. Because of this, the graphical interface in Linux / UNIX works in some complex processes. A software named X Server basically produces graphics, and another different desktop manager – (KDE / GNOME) – allows graphics to be displayed on the screen. This is done in such a way that the server can create graphics graphically and different workstations can display the graphics by customizing their desktop manager settings. On a normal PC, the server and desktop are run on the same machine. Programs that are designed for the character-based shell interface rather than the graphical interface are called ‘console programs’.